Suffixes: Name is meth(suffix), eth(suffix), prop(suffix), but(suffix)  etc.

R: Any carbon chain.

X: Any Halogen.






















Carboxcylic Acids

















Basic Starting point, just Hydrogen and Carbon 

Formula: CnH(2n+2).  Suffix: -ane

Example: Ethane

Includes C=C bond.

Formula: CnH2n Suffix: -ene

 Example: Ethene 


Alkane, one hydrogen substituted with a Halogen

Formula CnH(2n+1)X      Example:Chloroethane

Prefix of halogen eg chloro-    Suffix: -ane



 Alkane, one Hydrogen substituted for an OH group

Formula: CnH(2n+1)OH     Suffix -anol

Example: Ethanol

Alkane with two hydrogens from an end Carbon substituted for a double bonded Oxygen

Formula CnH2nO  Suffix -anal


 Alkane of at least 3 carbons with two Hydrogens from one of the middle Carbons substituted for a double bonded Oxygen.

Formula:CnH2nO    Suffix: -anone

Example: Propanone

 Alkane with the hydrogens on an end carbon repalced with a double bonded Oxygen and an OH group.

Functional Group: COOH  Suffix: -anoic acid

 Example: Ethananoic Acid


Compound formed by bonding between an Alcohol and a carboxcylic acid, which bond across one of the OH oxygens, prducing an ester and H20.

Functional group: R-C-O-C=O

Naming takes the form:

 (Number of Carbons on Alcohol)-yl

 (Number of carbons on carboxcylic acid)anoate

Example: Ester of methanol and ethanoic acid is:

Methyl Ethanoate

Alkane with three Hydrogens from an end carbon substituted for a triple bonded Nitrogen.

Functional Group: R-CN

Suffix: -anitrile

Example: Ethanitrile

Alkane with one hydrogen substituted for a single bonded N. Primary amines have2, Secondary R-NHR and tertiary have three different R groups on the Nitrogen 

Functional group C-N

Suffix -ylamine

Example: Ethylamine

 Amine with double bonded oxygen on the C-N carbon

Functional group O=C-N

Suffix -ylamide

Example: Ethylamide

Functional group is a benzene ring, with 6 Carbons 6 Hydrogens and 6 delocalized bonding electrons above and below the ring

Example: Benzene (shown in Kekule's structure due to the restraints of modelling)

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