Combustion (not difficult)

C(n)H(2n+2) + (n+1)O2 ----> n(CO2) + (n+1)H2O

 Halogenation (More difficult)

Three Step Mechanism:

Example used is C2H6 + Cl2 ----> C2H5Cl +HCl

Step 1: Initiation

UV light used to split the diatomic halogen (eg. Cl2) into two free radicals (eg. 2Cl•). This is Homolytic Fission

     UV light

Cl2 ----> 2Cl free radicals  


Step 2: Propogation

Really two reactions:

1) Cl•(g) + H-CH2CH3 ----> HCl + •CH2CH3 (free radical)  This radical is then used in the following reaction

2) •CH2CH3 + Cl2 ------> Cl-CH2CH3 +Cl•  (Cl• is regenerated)


Step 3: Termination

When the Cl2 or C2H6 have run out the remaining free radicals will join together. This can take 3 forms

Cl• +Cl• ----> Cl2

Cl• + •CH2CH3 -----> Cl-CH2CH3

•CH2CH3+ •CH2CH3 -----> C4H10


To Alkanes:

CnH2n +H2 + (Nickel Catalyst) ---->  CnH(2n+2)

To di-Halogenoalkanes: (two halogens)

CnH2n + Br2 ----> CnH2nBr2 (The C=C bond is broken and each of those carbons ios now bonded to one Halogen)

To mono-Halogenoalkanes:

CnH2n + HBr ----> CH3CH2Br

To Alcohols:

CnH2n + H2O(g) + phosphoric acid catalyst ---------> CnH2n+1OH


Combustion: CnH(2n+1)OH + (1.5n)O2 -------> nCO2 + (n+1)H2

To Alkenes: CnH(2n+1)OH +conc. H2SO4 (catalyst) --------> CnH2n +H2O

To Esters: Add carboxcylic acid, acid catalyst and heat.

For primary alcohols: 

To Aldehydes: add acid and potassium dichromate, distil.

To Carboxcylic acids: add excess acid and potassium dichromate, reflux.

Secondary Alcohols:

To Ketones: add acid andd potassium dichromate, heat.


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